Showing posts with label zero tolerance. Show all posts
Showing posts with label zero tolerance. Show all posts

Monday, October 3, 2011


Labels have their use.  They help us store and sort information.  Be they clothing labels or social labels, they help all of us in our fast-paced lives quickly sort through data and make "order" out options, possibilities, and stimuli that are constantly bombarding us.

They also have their limits. The problem is that labels also limit our horizons and skew expectations.  They empower groups to make 'justified' decisions with little research or thought, they empower groups to often feel better about themselves.  They limit growth or even exposure to growth options and possibilities, and they often hurt kids, teens in particular, who are struggling with 'identity' and critical thought.

This past weekend, my daughter's friend Daniel forwarded an article to me (about teenagers and nerds in particular) by Paul Graham he though I might like (and I did). I found it provocative, sad, and a MUST READ for parents and educators:

Paul Graham is a programmer (he designed List, co-founded Viaweb, invented Bayesian span filters), a venture capitalist, essayist, author, and painter. One of the things that was so powerful in his essay was the pain he relays the "nerds...retards...and freaks" felt through middle and high school.  His article "WHY NERDS ARE UNPOPULAR" was written December 2005, and while just short of six years old, still rings true.

Graham's essay focuses on the harsh brutality of the teen years of middle and high school: the cruel cliques, use of labels, the abuse of one group upon another, and his perception of the cause and effect these labels and groups have.  He also discusses the nature of 'nerdhood' (which I will discuss in two more weeks - for the letter "N").

In this post I focus on the nature of the labels. 

Labeling Theory and Why are our kids "LABELING" others:

Emile Durkheim (visit http://www, for more) suggested that labeling satisfies society's need to control behavior.

Our kids label because we as adults label others.  We label ethnic groups, religious groups and political groups all the time.  Granted one might ask, are we doing this as adults because we learned it as kids?  This is a 'which came first the chicken or the egg' question and not of great consequence here (in my humble opinion).  The fact is WE label and our kids see this.  And, as I pointed out, we label to help sort and/or to control. 

Graham posits other reasons. 

He begins by noting that labeling is a way of making sense and creating their 'teen' world - separate from a kid's world and separate from the adult world:
Around the age of eleven, though, kids seem to start treating their family as a day job. They create a new world among themselves, and standing in this world is what matters...

The problem is, the world these kids create for themselves is at first a very crude one. If you leave a bunch of eleven-year-olds to their own devices, what you get is Lord of the Flies. Like a lot of American kids, I read this book in school. Presumably it was not a coincidence. Presumably someone wanted to point out to us that we were savages, and that we had made ourselves a cruel and stupid world. This was too subtle for me. While the book seemed entirely believable, I didn't get the additional message. I wish they had just told us outright that we were savages and our world was stupid.
He then notes that once labels are given, a hierarchy is developed to 'help bolster' self-esteem and 'assure the vitality' of the group:
Another reason kids persecute nerds is to make themselves feel better. When you tread water, you lift yourself up by pushing water down. Likewise, in any social hierarchy, people unsure of their own position will try to emphasize it by maltreating those they think rank below.
Like a politician who wants to distract voters from bad times at home, you can create an enemy if there isn't a real one. By singling out and persecuting a nerd, a group of kids from higher in the hierarchy create bonds between themselves. Attacking an outsider makes them all insiders. This is why the worst cases of bullying happen with groups. Ask any nerd: you get much worse treatment from a group of kids than from any individual bully, however sadistic.

Graham paints a particularly disturbing picture, and one that, unfortunately is accurate in many schools.  He goes so far as to say that,

Public school teachers are in much the same position as prison wardens. Wardens' main concern is to keep the prisoners on the premises. They also need to keep them fed, and as far as possible prevent them from killing one another. Beyond that, they want to have as little to do with the prisoners as possible, so they leave them to create whatever social organization they want. From what I've read, the society that the prisoners create is warped, savage, and pervasive, and it is no fun to be at the bottom of it.
In outline, it was the same at the schools I went to. The most important thing was to stay on the premises. While there, the authorities fed you, prevented overt violence, and made some effort to teach you something. But beyond that they didn't want to have too much to do with the kids. Like prison wardens, the teachers mostly left us to ourselves. And, like prisoners, the culture we created was barbaric.

Graham hints at a solution, however:
Teenage kids used to have a more active role in society. In pre-industrial times, they were all apprentices of one sort or another, whether in shops or on farms or even on warships. They weren't left to create their own societies. They were junior members of adult societies.
I have been a strong proponent of mandatory community service between high school and college - but maybe I got it wrong.  Maybe we need to create meaningful communities, opportunities, and activities for our teens - as individuals and in mixed groups as early as middle school.

The road to salvation - as I see it:
  • This was written in 2005 and I do think schools and adults have become more sensitive to labeling and bullying - in school.  WE still need, however, to be more sensitive in how we use labeling in our lives, in front of our kids, on our televisions, in our movies, in literature and the media. I am not sure the media will comply - but this may be a wonderful discussion point to bring up.
  • Discuss reasons for labeling and consequences of labeling with your kids.
  • When labeling, make sure it is not derogatory.  Make sure it is not a 'judgement' label. Make sure it is not done through a need to control or feel superior.
  • While "Zero Tolearnce" programs are problematic at best, their intent is not.  We should not tolerate bullying or name calling. 
  • When you notice yourself or your child labeling, or you notice labeling in the media or books you read - talk about it.
  • Schools should foster a strong sense of "community" outside of school teams and athletics.  This has to be done in and out of the classrooms:
    • There should be community charity drives
    • Community service through the schools - visits to hospitals (reading, recitals, etc.), retirement homes, food kitchens,  animal shelters - to name a few.  Each grade or each class should have its own project.  This builds community on many levels and everyone benefits.
  • Classroom work should be inclusive.  
    • Classroom discussions should be 'safe' for everyone to participate in;
    • Group work should not be student picked - in cliques and groups, but should be teacher generated - mixing up different strengths, preferences and opinions in each group.

Labeling DOES have its benefits, but we all have to aware of how and when we label others.  Labeling DOES help us sort through a world chock-full of information, but it can limit and restrict horizons as well.  What do you think?  I'd love to know.

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Zero Tolerance for Bullying
No argument: There should be ZERO tolerance for bullying.  

The debate is over policy: Zero Tolerance Policies (where ALL acts of bullying result automatically in severe punishment, which in schools usually translates into suspension) sound good. Research, however, indicates it is ineffective at best.

Part of the problem is that Zero Tolerance Polices do not, by definition, incorporate (a) extenuating circumstances; (b) the fact that understanding what lead to the undesirable behavior is essential in determining the most effective responses; or, (c)  the fact that what constitutes "punishment" various from each individual.

Here's one real life example (names have been changed):

Brody hit Charles in the school lunch room.  Brody admits hitting him, tries to explain why - but the Dean, incensed with the action suspends him without an investigation.

But, is life ever that simple?  What did Brody and Charles learn from this?  What did their friends learn?

In truth, the scene above happens all too frequently in schools and is NEVER that simple.

In the above case, Charles began bullying Brody three years before this final incident.  Brody typically would walk away when pushed and berated but not report it because he felt ashamed of being victimized.  On this day in question, after homeroom, Charles again began calling Brody names. Brody walked away and Charles stalked after him.  Other kids observed this but no school personnel took notice.  Brody was a quiet kid, never got into trouble, helped his classmates and was considerate of others. Charles was not liked by others and was often found engaged in verbal arguments.  Charles kept harassing Brody - who kept walking away.  Finally Brody turned to Charles and asked him to leave him alone and stop stalking him.  They were in the lunch room.  Charles pushed Brody, and Brody in desperation punched Charles.  The punch is what the administration saw.  Charles refuted Brody's story (initially) and Brody was suspended. It was only after Brody's mom complained that the school began asking kids what happened and Brody's story was corroborated.

What was gained by the school's action?  Charles' bullying was reinforced - Brody got into real trouble.  Brody became a victim not only of Charles' bullying but of the school administration's blind eye to detail and circumstances.  Other students saw who was reinforced and punished in this scenario and they learned too.


Until witnessing this scenario I was a strong proponent of Zero Tolerance policies.  Bullying should not be tolerated - be it physical,verbal, visual or sexual bashing.   In the case above, however, the Zero Tolerance policy reinforced Charles' bullying and further humiliated Brody. Brody should not have fallen victim yet again, and Charles' bullying should not have been reinforced by punishing only Brody (further validating Charles' behavior).

Bottom line:
  • There should be no tolerance anywhere for bullying, name calling. harassment of any sort.  
  • Bullying begins with words and physical cues and postures.  These words and postures should be the first behaviors addressed when dealing with inappropriate social interactions.  We should not wait for the physical manifestations.
  • There must be negative consequences for all harassers and all forms of harassment.
  • The first rule, however, of behavior modification is that when punishing someone for any type of act, the punishment has to be perceived to be a punishment by the person receiving said punishment. SO, if a kid likes being alone in a room, sending them to a room for time out as punishment, will not be effective.  Therefore, having predetermined punishments, by definition is not the most effective means of shaping behavior.
  • When punishing - make sure you have all the facts before passing judgement.  Realize that getting these facts may take some time.
 Anti-Bullying Suggestions:
  • If you see bullying on television or a movie, or read about it in a book, or see it happening in the playground - talk to your child about it.  Talk about how it feels to be a victim, talk about how to defuse a bully, talk about seeking adult help, and talk about NOT being ashamed if it happens to you.
 It doesn't work this way in real life, and bullying is not funny - at all - but it is a nice jumping point to watch scenes like this together and talk about them.
  • If your child is being bullied, talk about it.  Empathize with him or her, validate their feelings.  Brainstorm possible solutions explaining that there may not be any quick fixes but making sure your child sees some form of response and consequence.  If this is happening in school, talk to teachers and administrators.  Document the bullying.  Be persistent in checking in with the school and your child.
Some websites you may want to visit:
    There are so many forms of bullying (verbal, physical, cyberspace bullying, etc.) that cannot be addressed in one post.  Have you had to deal with bullying?  How have you handled it?